Understanding and Types of Athletics – Athletics is a sport that is carried out in various ways, including walking, throwing and jumping. In athletics, there are many branches in it and many definitions also explain athletics.
Although it sounds foreign and not very popular, compared to other sports, athletics is the oldest sport and is contested in sporting events, you know. More about the meaning and various types of athletic sports, see the explanation until the end!
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Definition of Athletics
Etymologically, athletics is related to the combination of several types of physical sports. Athletics comes from the Greek word athlon, which means contest or competition. Referring to the etymological understanding of athletics, the word athletics can be defined as a competition that has certain sports branches and these sports include jumping, running, walking and throwing.
When referring to the definition of athletics in the encyclopedia, athletics is defined as a competition and athletic sport, but in terminology the word athletics can be interpreted as a form of an activity carried out by humans in everyday life, where the activity is contested in the form of running. , throw and jump.
Thus, the notion of athletics according to the encyclopedia can be concluded as a sport consisting of several combinations of physical sports, for example, such as throwing, jumping, running and walking. Athletics is also defined as a physical sport that uses a track and field such as the high jump, walking, running and javelin throwing.
Meanwhile, experts define the word athletics as follows.
1. Tamsir Riyadi
According to Riyadi, athletics can be defined as a sport consisting of three race numbers, including the number of roads, running, throwing and jumping. From the notion of athletics put forward by Tamsir Riyadi, he argues that in athletic sports the movements in it are movements that have always been carried out by everyone since ancient times. Riyadi also argues that the movement in this athletic sport is a movement that is included in the effort to maintain life and save oneself from natural disturbances that surround it.
2. Mochammad Djumidar A Widya
According to Mochammad Djumidar A Widya, athletics is defined as one of the elements of physical education and health. Athletics is defined as a component that exists in education as a whole and prioritizes physical activities as well as fostering a healthy life as well as mental, physical, social and emotional development that are in harmony, balance and harmony with one another.
Muhajir argues that athletics is a sport that develops and grows simultaneously in human natural activities. Examples include jumping, throwing, walking and running.
From the notion of athletics according to etymology, encyclopedias and experts, the word athletics in athletic sports can be interpreted as follows. Athletics is a sport in which there are several other types of sports that use movements in everyday life such as running, jumping and throwing.
History of Athletics
It is estimated that athletics appeared in the Egyptian civilization around three thousand BC. It was at this time that athletics was thought to have first appeared. However, at that time the sport did not yet have a name, until in early 1829 BC a track and field race called the Tailteann Games was held at the Lugnasad Festival.
Then the athletic sport began to be held at the first Olympics, namely in 776 BC. In that year, the Olympics with athletics became the only sporting event held, namely in the form of running and stadium competitions. Then over time, requests to hold the Olympics grew more and more, so that creativity in the field of athletics also developed.
Since then, society has become more fond of athletic contests such as the Goths, Teutonics and the Celts and the Romans. However, at that time athletic contests were often associated with combat training.
Then in the Middle Ages, noble children began to be trained to run, wrestle, ride and fight using various weapons such as arrows or other weapons of choice. Around 776 BC, contests between rivals and friends were common.
Athletics then continued until the 19th century. Entering the 19th century, formal organizations began to appear in modern events. Included in regular exercise as well as training in the school regime at that time. The Royal Military College at Sandhurst even claims that it used regular sporting events in 1812 and 1825. Meanwhile, according to the findings, the first sporting event was held by the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire.
In the modern era, athletic sports are then present in almost every sporting event. In 1896, the modern Olympics then formed the basis in athletics and then in 1928, women were allowed to participate in athletics.
Various Branches of Athletics
There are several types of athletics and not just one. Here are some kinds of athletic sports.
1. Fast Walking
The first athletic sport is brisk walking. Brisk walking can be interpreted as a movement by stepping forward continuously, without a broken connection on the ground area. When performing movements on a fast walk, the position of one foot of the athlete must touch the ground, where the position of the foot must be the support of the leg must be straight.
In the athletic sport of fast walking, it is not allowed to take steps that are carried out by floating or jumping such as when running. According to the rules in brisk walking, the athlete’s feet must be fast, but the feet must still be on the ground at least one foot must always touch the ground.
Brisk walking is a sport with an athletic number which is considered to be done with full sincerity. In Indonesia itself, the fast walking competition is a competition with numbers that have been contested at the national athletics championship since 1978. The distance contested for female athletes is 5 km and 10 km, while for male athletes it starts from 10 km and 20 km.
Running is a sport that is included in the type of athletics. Running can be defined as a fast forward movement, where at certain times the athlete’s feet will be in the air and not touch the ground.
When doing running movements, athletes will need muscle strength, speed and good coordination of the limbs, so that athletes will be able to reach the finish line. In athletics running, it is subdivided into several running numbers, which are as follows.
a. Short distance running
In short-distance running, take the running number starting from 100 m to 400 m. Generally, when athletes compete in short distance running, athletes will use a squat start, whether the distance is 100 m, 200 m or 400 m.
Athletes who compete in the 200 m distance will run at a higher average speed, compared to athletes who run in the 100 m distance. Then, athletes who run with a mileage number of 400 m, are sprints with a track length of 400 m.
Short distance running, is a branch of sport that takes into account the speed of the athlete to reach the finish stage. The faster the athlete enters the finish stage, the better the race results.
b. Long distance running
In addition to short-distance running, there are also long-distance running sports. Long distance running is also known as a marathon. In long-distance running, the distance starts from 3 km, 5 km, 10 km to over 10 km. In contrast to short-distance running that uses a squat start, long-distance running uses a standing start.
c. Relay run
The next running number is the relay run. In relay running, athletes must run while carrying a stick of certain sizes, where the stick will then be handed over to the next athlete in the designated substitution area.
In general, the relay running numbers that are contested are the 4 x 100 m and the 4 x 400 m running numbers. When doing relay running, every athlete needs good teamwork, so that the baton handover process can run well.
Goal running is a running sport that is done by athletes quickly in order to cover a certain distance that has been determined by passing several obstacles, namely in the form of a goal and a low bar.
3. Jumping Sports
Jumping is an athletic sport which is further divided into several types. Here are some types of jumping sports.
- The long jump is a forward jumping motion by lifting the legs up in the front of the body. This movement is carried out in order to be able to carry the weight of the athlete as long as possible in order to stay in the air in order to be able to reach the distance as far as possible.
- High jump, is one of the athletic sports performed by athletes by jumping high to cross the bar at a certain height. The high jump sport, requires the strength of the abdominal muscles as well as the legs, the goal is to achieve movement in the highest jump.
- Pole vault, or pole vault, is a branch of athletics where athletes jump over the bar to a certain height using a long and flexible pole.
4. Repel Bullets
The fourth athletic sport is shot put. In the sport of shot put, athletes are required to do a shot put. Shot put is a sport that is done by placing a bullet in the form of a round iron ball that is carried between the athlete’s neck and shoulder. Then, the shot putter will throw the bullet by pushing with one hand as far as possible.
The bullets or iron balls used vary in weight, depending on the sport number of the shot put being contested. The sport of shot put itself, began to be contested at the Olympics in 1896 with the weight of a bullet or iron ball ranging from 2.76 kg to 7.26 kg and depending on the gender of the athlete doing the shot put.
5. Javelin Throw
Javelin throwing is one of the athletic sports that is often contested in sporting events in the world. Not only that, javelin throwing has become a popular sport.
In the sport of javelin throwing, the athlete will throw a spear that has a pointed end and must be thrown as far as possible. When throwing a javelin there are basic techniques that athletes must know, namely the correct way to hold the javelin, carry it, the technique for making a prefix and how to throw the javelin.
The javelin used in the competition consists of two parts, namely it has a metal tip with a wooden or metal body. Then on the body of the javelin, there is a rope that is wrapped around as a balance point or also known as the point of gravity of the javelin.
The javelin used for competitions also has an official size, according to the gender of the athlete. For male athletes, the weight of the javelin used is 800 grams and the length of the javelin is from 2.6 to 2.7 m. As for female athletes, the weight of the javelin reaches 600 grams and the length of the javelin ranges from 2.2 to 2.3 m.
6. Throw Discs
Discus throwing is one of the competition numbers in athletics which is done by throwing using a wooden object in the form of a plate and an iron belt or other flat material. Discus throwing athletes must be able to throw discs at least a maximum of three times in each race.
Before the athlete throws the discus, the athlete must make at least two laps, before he throws the disc as far as possible. Then to get the farthest throwing distance, there are several rules that must be obeyed by athletes.
7. Hammer Throw
In addition to discus throwing, hammer throwing is an athletic sport that is done by jumping. The hammer is an object in this athletic sport that is thrown with a heavier weight.
In the sport of hammer throwing, athletes must throw a heavy round object with a certain distance that has been determined by rotating it into the air using the help of a wire or rope attached to the hammer.
The last type of athletic sport is archery. Archery is a sport that uses a bow to shoot arrows. At first, this archery sport started 5000 years ago and archery activities were originally used as a weapon when fighting and hunting animals.
When doing archery, the athlete must have the right technique so that his arrows are able to point to the midpoint of the board as the main target to get the highest score.
In archery, the distance to add six arrows is six draws. As for the distances of 50 m and 30 m, the athlete must add three arrows.