Understanding Static Balance: How to Train, and Its Relationship with the Elderly

What is Static Balance – Does Grameds realize that today’s teenagers often complain of back pain because they rarely do physical activity? Or even Grameds included in the group of “old teens”?

According to WHO ( World Health Organization ), physical activity which in the process does not contain actual physical activity can actually be a risk factor for chronic diseases that are estimated to be able to cause death globally. Physical activity in question is for example when spending more time in front of the television coupled with consuming snacks with high fat content. Actually, it’s okay to spend time in front of the television while eating snacks, but it must also be balanced with exercise.

When we talk about sports, we certainly cannot escape the balance of the body which is very important for everyone, from athletes to ordinary people. This body balance exercise is often taught in the family environment, in the neighborhood, to schools through Physical Education and Sports subjects.

In this body balance exercise, there are several kinds, each of which must be done correctly so that the body does not sprain. There are several types of body balance, namely static balance and dynamic balance.

So, what is static balance? Can this static balance exercise affect certain age groups?

So, so that Grameds doesn’t become a part of the elderly anymore, let’s look at the following description!

Definition of Static Balance

Before discussing about static balance, it would be better if Grameds understood what balance is first. There are several opinions expressed by experts regarding the definition of this balance. According to Winter (1995), balance is the ability to maintain the projection of the center of the body on a platform, as a support both when standing, sitting, and walking.

Then according to Lee & Scudds (2003) argues that a balance is needed to be able to maintain position and stability when moving from one position to another. Meanwhile, according to Javaid (2017), states that changes in the sensorimotor system, audio or visual sense, related to age can also affect the ability to maintain proper balance. In this case, balance can be divided into two types, namely static balance and dynamic balance.

Now, after understanding what body balance is, let’s talk about static balance now!

As the name implies, static balance is when the body manages to maintain an unchanging position or a fixed position in place. For example, balance when standing on one leg or when standing on a balance board. According to research conducted by De Oreo (1980), states that there is no significant difference between the ability of static balance in a man and a woman.

Meanwhile, dynamic balance is a balance to survive and maintain the body accompanied by certain physical movements. For example, when you are pedaling a bicycle, you must balance your body with two things, namely so that your body does not fall and that the bicycle continues to run through the pedals.

The ability to balance, both statically and dynamically, both require efforts to control the nervous and muscular organs, especially when performing fast movements with rapid changes in the location of the body’s center of gravity.

How to Practice Balance

The balance of the body that is owned by each individual is not obtained just like that. In order for the body to have the ability to control the muscles and nerves, it must be trained with some exercises. Balance training, both statically and dynamically, is usually done from an early age to adulthood. Grameds may often do this balance exercise without realizing it.

Well, here are some stretching exercises for static balance and dynamic balance according to Harsono (1988), namely:

1. Static Balance Exercise

There are many ways to train static balance in the human body, one of which is static stretching exercises . Actually, this static stretching exercise is often practiced in yoga activities, which are included in physical fitness training programs.

This yoga activity has various benefits, ranging from practicing balance, smoothing organ function, increasing concentration and intelligence, to reducing depression and perceived stress.

In static stretching exercises, a person must take a stance in such a way that it can stretch certain muscles. Usually the attitude in this exercise is in the form of a standing posture with straight legs, bent body, and hands trying to touch the floor, which can serve to stretch the back of the thigh muscles. Since this exercise includes static balance, the movement must be maintained for several seconds without moving.

Regarding the duration of time for how long a static stance should be maintained in this exercise there are differing opinions. According to Bompa (1983), recommends maintaining a static stance for 6-12 seconds. Then, according to Pate and colleagues (1984), it is recommended for a time duration of about 10 seconds or more. Then, according to Katch and Mc Ardle (1983), revealed that the duration of time for a static attitude is better around 10-30 seconds. The difference in the duration of time to maintain this static attitude can be done as much as possible by Grameds , but it will be better if the duration exceeds 10 seconds.

In an effort to exercise dynamic balance, it is necessary to pay attention to several things, namely to avoid stretching that is suddenly too far or too extreme so that it can cause muscle pain. Well, here are some steps that must be considered in an effort to practice static balance, namely:

  • When you are stretching (warming up), do it slowly without shock.
  • If you feel something stretch in your muscles while warming up, it’s better to stop. Continue again when the feeling of tension is no longer painful.
  • Maintain a static stance for 20-30 seconds.
  • Let all members of the body feel relaxed, especially in the muscles that are stretched so that their own space is able to stretch more widely.
  • Don’t hold your breath, try to keep breathing normally and slowly.
  • After maintaining a static stance for 20-30 seconds, slowly return to the starting stance. Don’t just jump right away so that the muscles are not surprised and don’t contract.

This static balance exercise is often used as a favorite sport because it has many advantages compared to dynamic balance exercises, namely in terms of:

  • Eliminates the possibility of injury to muscles, joints, and ligaments in the body.
  • Avoid pain after strenuous exercise.
  • During exercise, the muscles that are stretched become more relaxed.
  • Static stance that is maintained longer, will experience muscle elongation.
  • Less energy expended compared to dynamic balance training.

2. Dynamic Balance Exercise

Dynamic balance exercises can usually be done by moving the limbs rhythmically. The movement is a circular motion or bouncing limbs so that the muscles will feel stretched. Unfortunately, some dynamic balance exercises have received criticism from several experts, one of which is De Vries (1988) who argues that stretching that is done vigorously and quickly can actually cause a stretch-reflex in the muscles. Therefore, in dynamic balance training, it should be done in moderation so that the muscles do not contract.

Dynamic balance exercises that can be done, for example, sweeping, walking, running, gymnastics, and much more.

Factors Affecting Balance

The balance of the body is different for every human being, both in static and dynamic balance. One of the striking factors is age, therefore, in this day and age, many static balance training programs are targeted at the elderly.

According to Kisner and Colby (2007), there are several factors that affect balance in the human body, namely:

1. Center of Gravity (COG)

The center of gravity also has a big influence on the balance of the human body, because the center of gravity basically works by spreading the mass of objects evenly. The weight of the human body will be supported by the point of gravity so that the body can remain in a balanced position.

The human body will remain balanced if the center of gravity moves spontaneously according to the direction of changes in body weight.

2. Line of Gravity – LOG

The line of gravity is an imaginary line that runs vertically through the center at the point of gravity. The level of stability in the human body will later be determined by the relationship between the line of gravity, the center of gravity, and the existing fulcrum.

3. Field of Support (Base of Support – BOS)

The fulcrum or fulcrum is the part that relates to the supporting surface of the human body. Later, the body will remain balanced if the line of gravity is right at the fulcrum. Therefore, most humans can stand more stable on two legs than on one.

4. Age

Age is also an important factor in the balance of the human body, especially in the elderly. As you get older, your body balance tends to decrease. We can see that in children, the balance is higher because the size of the child’s head is relatively larger than the feet, which illustrates that the center of gravity is lower so the fulcrum will also be more stable.

5. Gender

Although it has been previously mentioned that there is no significant difference between the body balance of girls and boys, it turns out that there are other studies that compare this, especially in elderly women and elderly men. The difference in body balance based on gender is caused by differences in the location of the center of gravity.

If it is based on height, the center of gravity for males is about 56% and females is around 55%. Females have a lower center of gravity because they have heavier hips and thighs, and shorter legs.

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